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Class 12 Psychology Chapter 4 Solutions covers the question and answer of the whole chapter. These solutions will help you to understand the concept of Psychological Disorders chapter. If you are preparing for your exams then you should not miss this guide. These solutions are based on the curriculum of CBSE and will help you to ace your exams with excellent grades.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Psychology Chapter 4
Psychological Disorders Solutions
Questions & Answers
Q1) Identify the symptoms associated with depression and mania.
Answer) Depression and Mania are mood disorders. These are characterized by disturbances in mood or prolonged maladaptive emotional state. The main types of mood disorders include: Major Depression disorders, Mania, Biopolar Disorders.
Depression may get manifested as a symptom of a disorder or a major disorder in itself. 1. Major depressive disorders, are defined as a period of depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in most activities, together with other symptoms which may include.
Symptoms of Depression:
- Loss of energy, great fatigue.
- Change in body weight,
- Constant sleep problems.
- Inability to think clearly.
- Greatly slowed behaviour.
- Thoughts of death and suicide.
- Breakup in relationship.
- Negative self-concept.
- No interest in pleasurable activities.
- Other symptoms include excessive quilt or feelings of worthlessness.
Symptoms of Mania
- Increase in activity level.
- Excessively talkative
- Easily distracted.
- Less than usual amount of sleep.
- Inflated self esteem.
- Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities.
Q2) Describe the characteristics of hyperactive children.
Answer) Hyperactive children are suffering from Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) which can lead to more serious and chronic disorders as the child moves into adulthood if not attended. Children display disruptive or externalising behaviours.
The two main features of ADHD are inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity.
Children who are inattentive find it difficult to sustain mental effort during work or play. They have a hard time keeping their minds on any one thing or in following instructions. Common complaints are that the child does not listen, cannot concentrate, does not follow instructions, is disorganised, easily distracted, forgetful, does not finish assignments, and is quick to lose interest in boring activities
Children who are impulsive seem unable to control their immediate reactions or to think before they act. They find it difficult to wait or take turns, have difficulty resisting immediate temptations or delaying gratification. Minor mishaps such as knocking things over are common whereas more serious accidents and injuries can also occur.
Hyperactivity also takes many forms. Children with ADHD are in constant motion. Sitting still through a lesson is impossible for them. The child may fidget, squirm, climb and run around the room aimlessly. Parents and teachers describe them as ‘driven by a motor’, always on the go, and talk incessantly. Boys are four times more likely to be given this diagnosis than girls.
Q3) What do you understand by substance abuse and dependence?
Answer) In substance abuse, there are recurrent and significant adverse consequences related to the use of substances. People who regularly ingest drugs damage their family and social relationships, perform poorly at work, and create physical hazards.
In substance dependence, there is intense craving for the substance to which the person is addicted, and the person shows tolerance, withdrawal symptoms and compulsive drug-taking. Tolerance means that the person has to use more and more of a substance to get the same effect. Withdrawal refers to physical symptoms that occur when a person stops or cuts down on the use of a psychoactive substance, i.e. a substance that has the ability to change an individual’s consciousness, mood and thinking processes.
Q4) Can a distorted body image lead to eating disorders? Classify the various forms of it.
Answer) Yes, a distorted body image can lead to eating disorders. The various forms of eating disorders are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating. Here are the various form of it:
- Anorexia nervosa: In this eating disorder, the individual has a distorted body image that leads her/him to see herself/himself as overweight. Often refusing to eat, exercising compulsively and developing unusual habits such as refusing to eat in front of others, the anorexic may lose large amounts of weight and even starve herself/himself to death.
- Bulimia nervosa: In this disorder, the individual may eat excessive amounts of food, then purge her/his body of food by using medicines such as laxatives or diuretics or by vomiting. The person often feels disgusted and ashamed when s/he binges and is relieved of tension and negative emotions after purging.
- Binge eating: In this disorder, there are frequent episodes of out-of-control eating.
Q5) “Physicians make diagnosis looking at a person’s physical symptoms”. How are psychological disorders diagnosed?
Answer) Psychological disorders are diagnosed on the basis of two classifications, i.e., DSM or IV and ICD-X.
- Classification of psychological disorders consists of a list of categories of specific psychological disorders grouped into various classes on the basis of some shared characteristics.
- International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) is classification of behavioural and mental disorders.
- ICD-10 refers to international classification of diseases and its 10th revision is being used.
- It is developed by WHO under one broad heading ‘Mental Disorders’ which is based on symptoms. (The classification scheme is officially used in India)
- The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has published an official manual of psychological disorders: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, IVth Edition (DSM-IV).
- It Evaluates the patient on five axes or dimensions rather than just one broad aspect of ‘mental disorder’.
- These dimensions relate to biological, psychological, social and other aspects.
Uses of Classification:
Classifications are useful because they enable psychologists, psychiatrists and social workers to communicate with each other about the disorders.
- Helps in understanding the causes of psychological disorders and the processes involved in their development.
- It helps in Clinical diagnosis.
Q6) Distinguish between obsessions and compulsions.
Answer) Sometimes anxiety and tension are associated with obsessions—persistent unwanted thoughts, impulses or ideas or compulsions—seemingly irrational behaviours repeatedly carried out in a fixed, repetitive way.
People with obsessive-compulsive disorders find their obsessions or compulsions distressing and debilitating but feel unable to stop them. The compulsive actions are usually carried on to alleviate the anxiety caused by obsessions.
- Obsession of doubt followed by the compulsion of checking. Patients have an obsessional self-doubt and are always feeling guilty about having forgotten something. The checking may involve multiple trips back to the house to check the stove.
- Repetitive thoughts of a sexual or aggressive act that is reprehensible to the patient. This is usually not followed by compulsions.
- The need for symmetry and precision, which can lead to a compulsion of slowness. Patients can literally take an hour to shave their faces or eat a meal.
- Other symptom patterns may include religions obsessions and compulsive hoardings as well as trichotillomania (compulsive half pulling) and nail-biting.
Q7) Can a long-standing pattern of deviant behaviour be considered abnormal? Elaborate.
Answer) Abnormal behaviour is a relative term. It is a matter of degree. It is qualitative difference. There is no quantitative difference between normal and abnormal. The word ‘Abnormal’ literally means away from the normal. It implies deviation from some clearly defined norms or standards.
Various Views to explain Abnormality:
- Abnormality as Deviation from Social Norms:
- Each society has social norms, which are stated or unstated rules for proper conduct. Behaviours, thoughts and emotions that break societal norms are called abnormal.
- Behaviour violates social norms or threatens or makes anxious those observing it. Violation of norms makes abnormality a relative concept; various forms of unusual behavioural can be tolerated depending on the prevailing cultural norms. Yet this component is also at once too broad and too narrow.
- A society’s values may change over time. Serious questions have been raised about this definition.
- It is based on the assumption that socially accepted behaviour is not abnormal, and that normality is nothing more than conformity to social norms.
- This approach has major shortcomings and there are serious questions against this approach.
- Abnormality in terms of Maladaptive Behaviour:
- Recent approach views abnormal behaviour as maladaptive. Many psychologists believe that the best criterion for determining the normality of behaviour is not whether society accepts it but whether it facilitates the well-being of the individual and eventually of the group to which he/she belongs.
- Well-being is not simply maintenance and survival but also includes growth and fulfilment. Maladaptive behaviour refers to Behaviour that causes problems in life.
- It is inadequate reaction to the stressful situation.
- It ranges from relatively minor but troubling fears to severe distortions of reality.
- Concept of four D’s:
- Now-a-days many psychologists believe that if an individual’s behaviour manifests significant deviance, distress, danger and dysfunction in his/ her behavioural pattern, then it should be treated as abnormal.
Q8) While speaking in public the patient changes topics frequently, is this a positive or a negative symptom of schizophrenia? Describe the other symptoms and sub-types of schizophrenia.
Answer) While speaking in public, the patient changes topics frequently. This is a symptom of derailment. This is one of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia; is the descriptive term to a group of psychotic disorders in which personal, social and occupational functioning deteriorate as a result of disturbed thought processes, strong perceptions, unusual emotional states, and motor abnormalities. The social and psychological causes of schizophrenia are tremendous, both to patients as well as to their families and society.
Symptoms of schizophrenia:
- Positive symptoms: These are ‘pathological excesses’ or ‘bizarre additions’ to a person’s behaviour. Delusions, disorganised thinking and speech, heightened perception and hallucinations, and inappropriate affect are the ones most often found in schizophrenia.
- Negative symptoms: These are ‘pathological deficits’ and include poverty of speech, blunted and flat affect, loss of volition, and social withdrawal. People with schizophrenia show alogia or poverty of speech, i.e. a reduction in speech and speech content. Many people with schizophrenia show less anger, sadness, joy, and other feelings than most people do. Thus they have blunted affect.
Sub-types of Schizophrenia
According to DSM-IV-TR, the sub-types of schizophrenia and their characteristics are:
- Paranoid type: Preoccupation with delusions or auditory hallucinations; no disorganised speech or behaviour or inappropriate affect.
- Disorganised type: Disorganised speech and behaviour; inappropriate or flat affect; no catatonic symptoms.
- Catatonic type: Extreme motor immobility; excessive motor inactivity; extreme negativism (i.e. resistance to instructions) or mutism (i.e. refusing to speak).
- Undifferentiated type: Does not fit any of the sub-types but meets symptom criteria.
- Residual type: Has experienced at least one episode of schizophrenia; no positive symptoms but shows negative symptoms.
Q9) What do you understand by the term ‘dissociation’? Discuss its various forms.
Answer) Dissociation can be viewed as severance of the connections between ideas and emotions. Dissociation involves feelings of unreality, estrangement, depersonalisation, and sometimes a loss or shift of identity. Sudden temporary alterations of consciousness that blot out painful experiences are a defining characteristic of dissociative disorders. Four conditions are included in this group: dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, dissociative identity disorder, and depersonalisation.
Various forms of dissociation are as follows:
- Dissociative amnesia: It is characterised by extensive but selective memory loss that has no known organic cause (e.g. head injury). Some people cannot remember anything about their past. Others can no longer recall specific events, people, places, or objects, while their memory for other events remains intact. This disorder is often associated with an overwhelming stress.
- Dissociative fugue: It has, as its essential feature, an unexpected travel away from home and workplace, the assumption of a new identity, and the inability to recall the previous identity. The fugue usually ends when the person suddenly ‘wakes up’ with no memory of the events that occurred during the fugue.
- Dissociative identity disorder: It often referred to as multiple personality, is the most dramatic of the dissociative disorders. It is often associated with traumatic experiences in childhood. In this disorder, the person assumes alternate personalities that may or may not be aware of each other.
- Depersonalisation: It involves a dreamlike state in which the person has a sense of being separated both from self and from reality. In depersonalisation, there is a change of self-perception, and the person’s sense of reality is temporarily lost or changed.
Q10) What are phobias? If someone had an intense fear of snakes, could this simple phobia be a result of faulty learning? Analyse how this phobia could have developed.
Answer) An intense, persistent irrational fear of something that produces conscious avoidance of the feared subject, activity or situation is called a phobia. Phobias can vary in degree and how much they interfere with healthy adaptation to the environment. Some otherwise normal and well-adjusted persons also have phobias.
Phobias are mainly of three types:
- Specific phobias are those directed towards specific objects and situations and can be varied, e.g., acrophobia (fear of heights), pyrophobia (fear of fire), and hydrophobia (fear of water).
- Social phobia is a fear of social situations, and people with this phobia may avoid a wide range of situations in which they fear they will be exposed to, scrutinized and possibly humiliated by other people.
- Agoraphobia: is the term used when people developed a fear of entering unfamiliar situations.
Social learning theories work on the principle that our experience be it positive or negative such as phobia of lizards/cockroaches are the result of learning process which start early in life. Small children can play with snakes; they are not aware of the danger involved. For them it is just another play object, as they grow up the fear of these things are instilled by their parents and society which is reinforced and accounts for reactions like phobia.
A psychoanalytical account for the same could involve attribution to some unconscious > or/and repressed experiences. For example, suppose in your childhood you watched a group of roudy boys brutally torturing a cockroach/snake, which eventually died, although you going about the incidence after some days, but it might remain in back of your mind forever, which might explain your phobia to cockroaches which might remind you of the incidence and disturbs you emotionally.
Q11) Anxiety has been called the “butterflies in the stomach feeling”. At what stage does anxiety become a disorder? Discuss its types.
Answer) Anxiety is usually defined as a diffused, vague, very unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension without any apparent reason, therefore it has been called ‘butterflies in the stomach’.
Types of Anxiety Disorder:
- Generalized anxiety disorder which consists of prolonged, vague, unexplained and intense fears that are not attached to any particular object. The symptoms include:
- Worry and apprehensive feelings about the future.
- Hyper vigilance, which involves constantly scanning the environment for dangers.
- It is marked by motor tension, as a result of which the person is unable to relax.
- Shaky and tense.
- Panic disorder—consists of recurrent anxiety attacks in which the person experiences intense terror.
- A panic attack denotes an abrupt attack of intense anxiety, rising to a peak when thoughts of a particular stimuli are present.
- Such thoughts occur in an unpredictable manner.
- It continues for six and seven minutes and then patients becomes normal.
- Phobic Disorders:
- People who have phobias have irrational fears related to specific objects, people, or situations.
- Phobias can be grouped into three main types, i.e., specific phobias, social phobias, and agoraphobia.
- Obsessive Compulsive Disorders:
- Post-traumatic Stress Disorders:
- People who have been caught in a natural disaster (such as tsunami).
- Victims of bomb blasts by terrorists.
- Serious accident.
- In a war-related situation.
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