Hello Students. Are you Searching for NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 9? If yes then you are in the right place. Here we have provided you with the Question and Answers of Chapter 9: Recent Developments in Indian Politics. These solutions are written by expert teachers and faculties keeping the new curriculum in mind.
|Chapter||9. Recent Developments in Indian Politics|
|Textbook||Politics In India Since Independence|
|Category||NCERT Solutions for Class 12|
The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 9: Recent Developments in Indian Politics provide students with an easy-to-follow study guide. This resource will give students the confidence to take on the difficult subjects. These Solutions are a must-have for all students wishing to score high marks in the Political Science subject. They will also enable students to prepare each topic meticulously. Aside from that, the NCERT solutions for Class 12 Political Science will help them get the highest marks possible.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 9
Recent Developments in Indian Politics Solutions
Q1) Unscramble a bunch of disarranged press clipping file of Unni-Munni… and arrange the file chronologically.
(a) Mandal Recommendations and Anti Reservation Stir.
(b) Formation of Janata Dal.
(c) The demolition of Babri Masjid.
(d) Assassination of India Gandhi.
(e) The formation of NDA government.
(f) Godhra incident and its fallout.
(g) Formation of UPA government.
(a) Assassination of India Gandhi(1984).
(b) Formation of Janata Dal (1989)
(c) Mandal Recommendations and Anti Reservation Stir (1990)
(d) The demolition of Babri Masjid (1992)
(e) The formation of NDA government (1997)
(g) Formation of UPA government (2004)
Q2) Match the following:
|(a) Politics of Consensus||(i) Shah Bano case|
|(b) Caste based parties||(ii) Rise of OBCs|
|(c) Personal Law and Gender Justice||(iii) Coalition government|
|(d) Growing strength of Regional parties||(iv) Agreement on Economic policies|
|(a) Politics of Consensus||(iv) Agreement on Economic policies|
|(b) Caste based parties||(ii) Rise of OBCs|
|(c) Personal Law and Gender Justice||(i) Shah Bano case|
|(d) Growing strength of Regional parties||(iii) Coalition government|
Q3) State the main issues in Indian politics in the period after 1989. What different configurations of political parties these differences lead to?
Answer) In the decade of eighties, the country witnessed five main developments which had a long lasting impact on politics:
- End of Congress system.
- Mandal issues
- New Economic Reforms
- Babri Masjid Issues
- Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi 1989 elections led to defeat of Congress and emerged the era of ‘Multi Party- System’ when no single party secured majority in Lok Sabha elections since 1989. It led the era of coalition government also when regional parties played an crucial role in forming a ruling alliance.
Since 1989, there have been nine governments at the centre either coalition government or minority government supported by other parties. In this phase, government could be formed only with the participation of many regional parties.
The nineties also saw the emergence of powerful parties to represent Dalits and backward classes and regional assertions as well.
Q4) “In the new era of coalition politics, political parties are not aligning or realigning on the basis of ideology.” What arguments would you put forward to support or oppose this statement?
Answer) The statement is justified because in the new era of coalition politics the emphasis on pragmatic considerations rather than ideological positions and political alliance without ideological agreement:
- Coalition politics has shifted the focus from ideological differences to power sharing arrangements.
- Most parties of NDA did not agree with the ‘Hindutva’ ideology of B JP still they came together to form government and remained in power also for full term.
Q5) Trace the emergence of BJP as a significant force in post-Emergency politics.
Answer) The major trends in the electoral performance of BJP since 1989 can be traced as follows:
- In the elections of 1989, the National front under V.P. Singh came to power supported by left front and BJP from outside because they wanted to keep the Congress out of power. Due to Mandal Commission Report and implementation of its recommendations forced BJP to reconsider its support and finally withdrew it. Thus, in November 1990, the rule of National Front came to an end.
- In 1996 BJP minority government was formed for a short period. In June 1996 BJP failed to get majority support in the vote of confidence and thus collapsed.
- From March 1998 to October 1999, BJP and others formed alliances NDA (National Democratic Alliance) under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee. The regional Parties demanded more share in the government to extend their support.
- The political competition during nineties and divided between the coalition led by BJP and coalition led by Congress.
Q6) In spite of the decline of Congress dominance the Congress party continues to influence politics in the country. Do you agree? Give reasons.
Answer) The defeat of Congress Party in 1989 marked an end of Congress dominance over Indian Party System. But Congress continued to influence politics in country:
- Congress improved performance and came back to power after mid term elections in 1991.
- It also supported United Front government.
- In 1996, the left continued to support the non-Congress government but this time Congress supported it as both Congress and Left wanted to keep BJP out of power.
- Thus, Congress remained an important party and ruled country more than any other party even during the period since 1989. But it lost the kind of centrality it earlier enjoyed in the party system.
Q7) Many people think that a two-party system is required for successful democracy. Drawing from India’s experience of last twenty years, write an essay on what advantages the present party system in India has.
Answer) In the first decade of electoral politics India did not have a recognised opposition party. But some of vibrant and diverse opposition parties had come into being even before the first General Election of 1952 as the non-Congress parties. Hence, the roots of almost all the non-Congress parties of today can be traced to one or the other of the opposition parties of 1950s.
All these opposition parties gained only a representation, still their presence played a crucial role in maintaining democratic character of system. Hence due to following reasons two party system is required for successful democracy:
- Within two party systems, the opposition party offers a sustained and principled criticism of policies and practices of ruling party keeping it under a strict check.
- By keeping democratic political alternative alive, these parties prevented the resentment with the system from turning anti-democratic.
On the basis of above mentioned features it is justifiable to have a two party system which have following advantages:
- India has arrived at more competitive politics.
- Political parties act within the spheres of consensus.
- -New forms, vision, pathways of development have been identified.
- Issues like poverty, displacement, minimum wages, livelihood and social security are being put on political agenda.
- Issues of justice and democracy are being voiced by various classes, castes and regions to remind states its responsibility.
(a) Write a short note on what the author calls challenges of the party system in the light of what you have read in this chapter.
(b) Given an example from this chapter of the lack of accommodation and aggregation mentioned in this passage.
(c) Why is it necessary for parties to accommodate and aggregate variety of interests?
Answer a) The author calls challenges to coalition government as well as coalition in Congress party itself to trigger a new emphasis on self-representation.
Answer b) To unsolve a party system to accommodate diverse interests but the political parties formed under the leadership of Kanshi Ram for Dalits only.
Answer c) It is necessary for parties to accommodate and aggregate variety of interests to maintain the culture of India ‘Unity in Diversity’ so that there should be no space for separatist movements in India.
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