Hello Students. Are you Searching for NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 2? If yes then you are in the right place. Here we have provided you with the Question and Answers of Chapter 2: The End of Bipolarity. These solutions are written by expert teachers and faculties keeping the new curriculum in mind.
|Chapter||2. The End of Bipolarity|
|Textbook||Contemporary World Politics|
|Category||NCERT Solutions for Class 12|
The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 2: The End of Bipolarity provide students with an easy-to-follow study guide. This resource will give students the confidence to take on the difficult subjects. These Solutions are a must-have for all students wishing to score high marks in the Political Science subject. They will also enable students to prepare each topic meticulously. Aside from that, the NCERT solutions for Class 12 Political Science will help them get the highest marks possible.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 2
The End of Bipolarity Solutions
Q1) Which among the following statements that describe the nature of Soviet economy is wrong?
(a) Socialism was the dominant ideology.
(b) State ownership/control existed over the factors of production.
(c) People enjoyed economic freedom.
(d) Every aspect of the economy was planned and contained by the state.
Answer) (c) People enjoyed economic freedom
Q2) Arrange the following in chronological order:
(a) Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
(b) Fall of the Berlin Wall
(c) Disintegration of Soviet Union
(d) Russian Revolution
(d) Russian Revolution (1917)
(a) Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979)
(b) Fall of the Berlin Wall (Nov 1989)
(c) Disintegration of Soviet Union
Q3) Which among the following is NOT an outcome of the disintegration of the USSR?
(a) End of the ideological war between the US and USSR
(b) Birth of CIS
(c) Change in the balance of power in the world order
(d) Crises in the Middle East
Answer) (d) Crises in the Middle East
Q4) Match the following:
|BLOCK A||BLOCK B|
|Mikhail Gorbachev||Successor of USSR|
|Shock Therapy||Military pact|
|Boris Yeltsin||Economic model|
|Warsaw||President of Russia|
|BLOCK A||BLOCK B|
|Mikhail Gorbachev||c. Introduced reforms|
|ii. Shock Therapy||d. Economic model|
|iii. Russia||a. Successor of USSR|
|iv. Boris Yeltsin||e. President of Russia|
|v. Warsaw||b. Military pact|
Q5) Fill in the blanks:
(a) The Soviet Political System was based on ………. ideology.
(b) ………. was the military alliance started by the USSR.
(c) ………. party dominated the Soviet Union’s political system.
(d) ………. initiated the reforms in the USSR in 1985.
(e) The fall of the ………. symbolised the end of the Cold War.
Answer a) socialist
Answer b) Warsaw Pact
Answer c) Communist
Answer d) Gorbachev
Answer e) Berlin wall
Q6) Mention any three features that distinguish the Soviet economy from that of a capitalist country like the US.
Answer) The three features that distinguish the Soviet economy from that of a capitalist country like the US, can be summed up as follows:
- Soviet economy had a complex communications network, vast energy resources including oil, iron and steel, machinery production, and a transport sector that connected its remotest areas with efficiency.
- Soviet Union had a domestic consumer industry that produced everything from pins to cars, though their quality did not match that of the Western capitalist countries.
- The Soviet state ensured a minimum standard of living for all citizens, and the government subsidised basic necessities including health, education, childcare and other welfare schemes.
Q7) What were the factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate the reforms in the USSR?
Answer) Mikhail Gorbachev was the General Secretary of Communist Party of Soviet Union in 1985. He was forced to initiate the reforms in the USSR due to following reasons:
- To keep the USSR abreast of information and technological revolutions at par the West.
- To normalise the relations with that of the West.
- To democratise the Soviet System.
- To loosen the administrative system which exempted ordinary people from the privileges.
Q8) What were the major consequences of the disintegration of the Soviet Union for countries like India?
Answer) The major consequences of the disintegration of the Soviet Union for countries like India can be analysed as follows:
- Disintegration of Soviet Union gave an end to Cold War confrontations and to ideological disputes between two superpowers.
- Military alliances had been abolished and demand arose for world peace and security.
- Multipolar system was surpassed to exist where no single power could dominate and a group of countries could play a crucial role in world politics like NAM Countries.
- The US became the sole superpower and capitalist economy became dominant at international level. World Bank and IMF became powerful advisors due to their economic support to these countries during transitional period.
- The motion of liberal democracy emerged as a way to organise political life.
Q9) What was Shock Therapy? Was this the best way to make a transition from communism to capitalism?
Answer) Shock Therapy was a painful process of transition from an authoritarian socialist system to a democratic capitalist system. This transformation system was influenced by the world bank and the IMF in Russia, Central Asia and East Europe. Though it varies in intensity and speed amongst the former second world countries but its direction and features were quite similar.
This was not the best way to make a transition from communism to capitalism due to following drawbacks:
- Russia, the large state controlled industrial complex lost about 90 per cent of its industries through sales to private individuals and companies
- It created “the largest garage sale in history” which led virtual disappearance of entire industries for the restructuring was carried out by market forces in place of government owned policies.
Hence, industries were undervalued and sold at throwaway prices.
- It systematically destroyed old system of social welfare.
- The value of ‘ruble’, the Russian currency, declined dramatically due to high rate of inflation and real GDP of Russia also declined between 1989 to 1999.
- The withdrawal of government subsidies pushed large sections of society into poverty and it emerged mafia to start controlling many economic activities.
- Privatisation led to new disparities which divided Russia between rich and poor people creating economic inequality.
- Hence, Shock Therapy brought ruin to economies and disaster upon the people of entire region.
Q10) Write an essay for or against the following proposition.
Answer) India should not change its foreign policy and focus more on friendship with US, but India is required to maintain healthy relations with Russia because Indo-Russian relations are embedded in a history of trust and common interests and are matched by popular perceptions.
Russia and India share a vision of a multipolar world order i.e. co-existence of several world powers internationally, collective security, greater regionalism, democratisation with the decision-making through bodies like the UN. More than 80 bilateral agreements have been experienced between India and Russia as a part of the Indo- Russia Strategic Agreement of 2001.
India has been benefitted from its relationship on the issues like Kashmir, energy supplies, sharing information on international terrorism, access to Central Asia and balancing its relation with China. Russia is also important for India’s nuclear energy plane and assisting India’s space industry by giving cryogenic rocket to India whenever needed. Co-operation with Russia and its republics like Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan in the form of partnership and investment in oil fields has also benefitted India.
Russia is also benefitted from India on ground of the second largest arms market for Russia. Indian military gets most of its hardware from Russia. Russia and India have collaborated on various scientific projects also.
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