NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 8: Manufacturing Industries

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Chapter8. Manufacturing Industries
TextbookIndia People and Economy
CategoryNCERT Solutions for Class 12

Class 12 Geography Chapter 8 Solutions covers the question and answer of the whole chapter. These solutions will help you to understand the concept of Manufacturing Industries chapter. If you are preparing for your exams then you should not miss this guide. These solutions are based on the curriculum of CBSE and will help you to ace your exams with excellent grades.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 8

Manufacturing Industries Solutions

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below

i) Which is not a factor of industrial location?

(a) Market
(b) Capital
(c) Population Density
(d) Power

Answer) (c) Population Density

ii) The earliest Iron and Steel Company to be established in India was:

(c) Visvesvaraiya Iron and Steel Works
(d) Mysore Iron and Steel Works

Answer) (b) TISCO

iii) The first modern cotton mill was established in Mumbai because

(a) Mumbai is a port
(b) It is located near cotton growing area
(c) Mumbai was the financial centre
(d) All of the above.

Answer) (d) All of the above

iv) The nucleus of the Hugli Industrial Region is:

(a) Kolkata-Haora (Howrah)
(b) Kolkata-Rishra
(c) Kolkata-Medinipur
(d) Kolkata-Konnagar

Answer) (a) Kolkata-Haora (Howrah)

v) Which one of the following is the second largest producer of sugar:

(a) Maharashtra
(b) Uttar Pradesh
(c) Punjab
(d) Tamil Nadu

Answer) (b) Uttar Pradesh

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words

i) Why do you think that the iron and steel industry is basic to the industrial development of any country?

Answer) Iron and steel are basic to economic development of any country because they are the basic raw material for production of all other goods- both industrial and commercial. All other industries are based on the products manufactured from these industries. Until and unless iron and steel are produced, even a nail, which is basic to all constructions, cannot be manufactured.

ii) Name the two sectors of the cottage textile industries. How are they different?

Answer) The cotton textile industry in India can be broadly divided into two sectors, the organised sector and the unorganised sector. The decentralised sector includes cloth ‘ produced in handlooms (including Khadi) and powerlooms. The production of the organised sector has drastically fallen from 81 per cent in the mid-twentieth century to only about 6 per cent in 2000. At present, the powerlooms on the decentralised sector produce more than the handloom sector.

iii) Why is the sugar industry a seasonal industry?

Answer) Sugar industry is totally based on sugarcane as raw material. Sugarcane is a seasonal crop harvested annually. Since sugarcane is a perishable crop and its sucrose content starts to decline within 24 hours only, therefore sugarcane cannot be stored for production of sugar later in the year. As a result production of sugar is limited to only harvesting time of the sugarcane.

iv) What is the raw material base for the petrochemical industry? Name some of the products of this industry.

Answer) Crude petroleum is the raw material for the petroleum industry. It is refined to obtain various products, which collectively are referred to as petrochemical industries. This group of industries is divided into four sub-groups:

  • polymers,
  • synthetic fibres,
  • elastomers, and
  • surfactant intermediate.

v) What is the major impact of Information Technology (IT) revolution in India?

Answer) The advancement in information technology has had a profound influence on the country’s economy. The Information Technology (IT) revolution opened up new possibilities of economic and social transformation. The IT and IT enabled business process outsourcing (ITES- BPO) services continue to be on a robust growth path. Indian software industry has emerged as one of the fastest growing sectors in the economy. The software industry has surpassed electronic hardware production. The Indian government has created a number of software parks in the country. Also it has a large number of females employed in it.

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words

i) How did the Swadeshi movement give a major impetus to the cotton textiles industry?

Answer) Swadeshi movement was the movement, which was started by Gandhiji as a step towards achieving self-sufficiency in production. British goods were boycotted and Indian manufactured products were promoted. British in India deepened their roots by destroying indigenous industries. Swadeshi hit on this very policy of the government. People destroyed foreign manufactured goods in huge quantities; they started spinning for their own clothes. Capital was collected and new mills were setup throughout the country under the impetus provided by the swadeshi movement. New mills, which are still functioning, sprang up throughout the country. Khadi cloth and khadi industry were revived, the traditional artisans who have lost their livelihood were reabsorbed under the swadeshi economy as a movement against the British led economy. Not only large-scale industries were set up but also small and cottage industry was revived. Since under the wave nationalism people were adopting khadi- Indian handloom, the demand for the Indian cotton shot up, hence the entire indigenous cotton industry of India was revived. It also helped in generating employment opportunities leading to overall growth in national income.

ii) What do you understand by liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation? How have they helped industrial development in India?


Liberalisation: Removal or reduction of different types of controls on private and foreign sector which are in force in the economy so as to make trade and industrial sector more smooth in their functioning. Major liberalisation measures announced are:

  1. Abolition of industrial licensing.
  2. Free entry to foreign technology
  3. Foreign direct investment policy
  4. Access to capital market
  5. Open trade
  6. Abolition of phased manufacturing programme.

Privatisation: Privatization is the transfer of control of ownership of economic resources from the public sector to the private sector. It means a decline in the role of the public sector as there is a shift in the property rights from the state to private ownership.

Globalisation: It means integrating the economy of the country with the world economy. Under this process, goods and services along with capital, labour and resources can move freely from one nation to another.

In Indian context, globalisation implies:

  1. Opening of the economy to foreign direct investment by providing facilities to foreign companies to invest in different fields of economies activity in India.
  2. Removing restrictions and obstacles to the entry of multinational companies in India.
  3. Allowing Indian companies to enter into foreign collaboration in India and also encouraging them to set up joint ventures abroad.
  4. Instead of a set of massive export incentives ,opting for exchange rate adjustments for promoting export.

That’s it. These were the solutions of NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 8 – Manufacturing Industries. Our team hopes that you have found these solutions helpful for you. If you have any doubt related to this chapter then feel free to comment your doubts below. Our team will try their best to help you with your doubts.

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