NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 4: Human Settlements

Hello Students. Are you Searching for the solutions of Class 12 Geography Chapter 4? If yes then you are in the right place. Here we have provided you with the Question and Answers of Chapter 4: Human Settlements. These solutions are written by expert teachers and are so accurate to rely on.

Chapter4. Human Settlements
TextbookIndia People and Economy
CategoryNCERT Solutions for Class 12

Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Solutions covers the question and answer of the whole chapter. These solutions will help you to understand the concept of Human Settlements chapter. If you are preparing for your exams then you should not miss this guide. These solutions are based on the curriculum of CBSE and will help you to ace your exams with excellent grades.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 4

Human Settlements Solutions

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below

i) Which one of the following towns is NOT located on a river bank?

(a) Agra
(b) Bhopal
(c) Patna
(d) Kolkata

Answer) (b) Bhopal

ii) Which one of the following is NOT the part of the definition of a town as per the census of India?

(a) Population density of 400 persons per sq km.
(b) Presence of municipality, corporation, etc.
(c) More than 75% of the population engaged in primary sector.
(d) Population size of more than 5,000 persons.

Answer) (c) More than 75% of the population engaged in primary sector

iii) In which one of the following environments does one expect the presence of dispersed rural settlements?

(a) Alluvial plains of Ganga
(b) Arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan
(c) Lower valleys of Himalayas
(d) Forests and hills in north-east

Answer) (d) Forests and hills in north-east

iv) Which one of the following group of cities have been arranged in the sequence of their ranks i.e. 1, 2, 3 and 4 in size?

(a) Greater Mumbai, Bangalore, Kolkata, Chennai
(b) Delhi, Greater Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata
(c) Kolkata, Greater Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata
(d) Greater Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai

Answer) (d) Greater Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words

i) What are garrisson towns? What is their function?

Answer) Garrison towns are basically towns where military troops permanently stationed.
Functions of garrison towns are:

  1. It helps in maintaining peace and stability.
  2. It includes important settlements like training centre, offices and residences of military.

ii) How can one identify an urban agglomeration?

Answer) An urban agglomeration consists of any one of the following three combinations:

  1. a town and its adjoining urban outgrowths,
  2. two or more contiguous towns with or without their outgrowths, and
  3. a city and one or more adjoining towns with their outgrowths together forming a contiguous spread.

iii) What are the main factors for the location of villages in desert regions?

Answer) Availability of water is the main factor for the location of villages in desert regions as it is most important for human survival. Others factors are relief and climate.

iv) What are metropolitan cities? How are they different from urban agglomerations?

Answer) According to census of India the cities with population between 1 to 5 million are termed as metropolitan cities. An urban agglomeration is a stretch of urban area which may comprise two or more cities. Many of the metropolitan cities of India are basically urban agglomeration.

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words

i) Discuss the features of different types of rural settlements. What are the factors responsible for the settlement patterns in different physical environments?

Answer) There are four types of rural settlements:

  • Clustered: It is a compact or closely built up area of houses. The general living area is distinct and separated from the surrounding farms, barns and pastures. These settlements are generally found in fertile alluvial plains and in the northeastern states.
  • Semi-clustered: These settlements may result from tendency of clustering in a restricted area of dispersed settlement. These pattern may also result from segregation or fragmentation of a large compact village. In this case, one or more sections of the village society choose or is forced to live a little away from the main cluster or village.
  • Hamleted: Sometimes settlement is fragmented into several units physically separated from each other bearing a common name. This segmentation of a large village is often motivated by social and ethnic factors.
  • Dispersed: These settlements pattern appears in the form of isolated huts or hamlets of few huts in remote jungles, or on small hills with farms or pasture on the slopes. Extreme dispersion of settlement is often caused by extremely fragmented nature of the terrain and land resource base of habitable areas.

The factors responsible for the settlement patterns in different physical environments are:

  • Physical features include nature of terrain, altitude, climate and availability of water
  • Cultural and ethnic factors include social structure, caste and religion
  • Security factors include defence against thefts and robberies.

ii) Can one imagine the presence of only one-function town? Why do the cities become multi-functional?

Answer) Towns and cities are generally classified on the basis of the functions they perform. No town performs a single function, rather they are classified on the basis of the dominant function they perform. Even specialised cities, as they grow into metropolises become multifunctional wherein industry, business, administration, transport, etc. become important. The functions get so intertwined that the city can not be categorised in a particular functional class. Due to varying needs of human beings all the people of a town cannot be engaged in a single activity. Even if a town is a garrison town, basic trade activities must be carried out to provide the residents with the articles of day to day need, food items etc. To support the dominant activity of the town, the ancillary activities start emerging.

Mumbai is a transport town due to presence of port in Mumbai but it is also hub of international trade in India, hence is a trade town, Also it is the commercial capital of the country due to varying commercial activities, which are a result of the presence of large capital in the city because of it being a trading town and a port city. Therefore the presence of a dominant of a single function also attracts people to the town, which in turn create conditions conducive for development of other functions hence, towns become multifunctional. The functions performed in a town are extremely dynamic, new functions keep’ on adding and old functions getting linked with each other. Therefore, in modern economies no town can be a single functioned town.

That’s it. These were the solutions of NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 – Human Settlements. Our team hopes that you have found these solutions helpful for you. If you have any doubt related to this chapter then feel free to comment your doubts below. Our team will try their best to help you with your doubts.

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