# NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 3: Population Composition

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Class 12 Geography Chapter 3 Solutions covers the question and answer of the whole chapter. These solutions will help you to understand the concept of Population Composition chapter. If you are preparing for your exams then you should not miss this guide. These solutions are based on the curriculum of CBSE and will help you to ace your exams with excellent grades.

## NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 3

### Population Composition Solutions

#### i) Which one of the following has caused the sex ratio of the United Arab Emirates to be low?

(a) Selective migration of male working population
(b) High birth rate of males
(c) Low birth rate of females
(d) High out migration of females

Answer) (a) Selective migration of male working population

#### ii) Which one of the following figures represents the working age group of the population? (in years)

(a) 15-65 years
(b) 15-54 years
(c) 15-66 years
(d) 15-59 years

Answer) (d) 15-59 years

#### iii) Which one of the following countries has the highest sex ratio in the world?

(a) Latvia
(b) United Arab Emirates
(c) Japan
(d) France

#### i) What do you understand by population composition?

Answer) Population composition refers to those characteristics of population which are measurable and helps in distinguishing one group of people from other such as age, sex, literacy rate, occupation etc.

#### ii) What is the significance of age-structure?

Answer) Age structure represents the number of people of different age groups. It is an important indicator of population composition, since a large size of population in the age group of 15- 59 indicates a large working population.

#### iii) How is sex-ratio measured?

Answer) Sex ratio in the world is calculated as number of males per thousand of females in a population.

Sex ratio = (No. of males)/(No. of females) × 1000

In countries like India sex ratio is calculated as number of females per thousand of males.

Sex ratio = (No. of females)/ (No. of males) × 1000

#### i) Describe the rural-urban composition of the population.

Answer) The division of population into rural and urban is based on the residence. This division is necessary because rural and urban life styles differ from each other in terms of livelihood and social conditions. The age-sex-occupational structure, density of population and level of development vary between rural and urban population is also dependent on the state of development of a country.

The more progressed a country is with respect to its development, more number of people are engaged in non-primary activities, thus leading to shift from rural areas to urban areas. Moreover, industrialization also makes headway into the rural countryside, constructing new towns in hitherto traditionally agrarian areas, and therefore the population that was originally rural, becomes urban now. The criterion for classifying settlement as rural or urban varies from country to country. In general terms in rural areas more people are engaged in primary activities whereas in urban areas majority of population is associated with secondary or tertiary sectors.

The sex composition of rural and urban settlements varies between developed and developing countries. In the developed countries like the Western European nation due to security and availability of jobs women move out to urban areas. Farming is mostly mechanized there hence men tend to stay in rural areas and look after farming activities. Whereas a completely contrary picture can be seen in developing countries like India where due to lack of security, housing, job opportunities females tend to stay back in rural areas and look after farming whereas male members move out to urban areas in search of working opportunities,

#### ii) Discuss the factors responsible for imbalances in the sex-age found in different parts of the world and occupational structure.

Answer) The sex-age structure of a population refers to the number of females and males in different age groups. A population pyramid is used to show the age-sex structure of the population.

• The age-sex pyramid of Nigeria is a triangular shaped pyramid with a wide base and is typical of less developed countries. These have larger populations in lower age groups due to high birth rates. Bangladesh and Mexico also have same population pyramid. As the age increases, the number of females goes on decreasing as compared to males.
• Australia’s age-sex pyramid is bell shaped and tapered towards the top. This shows birth and death rates are almost equal leading to a near constant population.
• The Japan pyramid has a narrow base and a tapered top showing low birth and death rates. The population growth in developed countries is usually zero or negative.

Occupational structure: The working population (age group – 15 to 59) take part in various occupations. More females are engaged in the tertiary and quaternary sector than primary and secondary activities. This is because primary and secondary activities require more muscle power.

That’s it. These were the solutions of NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 3- Population Composition. Our team hopes that you have found these solutions helpful for you. If you have any doubt related to this chapter then feel free to comment your doubts below. Our team will try their best to help you with your doubts.