NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 11: International Trade

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Chapter11. International Trade
TextbookIndia People and Economy
CategoryNCERT Solutions for Class 12

Class 12 Geography Chapter 11 Solutions covers the question and answer of the whole chapter. These solutions will help you to understand the concept of International Trade chapter. If you are preparing for your exams then you should not miss this guide. These solutions are based on the curriculum of CBSE and will help you to ace your exams with excellent grades.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 11

International Trade Solutions

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below

i) Trade between two countries is termed as

(a) Internal trade
(b) External trade
(c) International trade
(d) Local trade

Answer) (c) International trade

ii) Which one of the following is a land locked harbour?

(a) Vishakhapatnam
(b) Mumbai
(c) Ennore
(d) Haldia

Answer) (a) Vishakhapatnam

iii) Most of India’s foreign trade is carried through

(a) Land and sea
(b) Land and air
(c) Sea and air
(d) Sea

Answer) (c) Sea and air

iv) Which one of the following is India’s largest trading partner (2010-11)

(a) U.A.E.
(b) China
(c) Germany
(d) U.S.A.

Answer) (a) U.A.E.

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words

i) Mention the characteristics of India’s foreign trade.

Answer) The nature of India’s foreign trade has changed over the years. Though there has been an increase in the total volume of import and export, the value of import continued to be higher than that of exports. There has also been an increase in trade deficit over the last couple of years. This increase in deficit is attributed to the price rise of crude petroleum, which forms a major component of India’s international trade. The share of primary products has decreased in the total export of India, whereas share of petroleum products has increased, share of manufactured products has remained constant over the years.

ii) Distinguish between port and harbour.


It is the point on the coast where the ship can be tied up for anchoring.It is an area at the sea providing shelter to the ship.
It provides facilities for loading and unloading for ship.Ships are encouraged and given protection from waves and stones.
Ports are generally artificially created.It is usually a natural structure.
It provides many facilities like warehouses to store cargo and well-built transportation systems.It provides an adequate room for harbouring of ships.

iii) Explain the meaning of hinterland.

Answer) Hinterland is the area served by a port. It is the area of influence of a port. It is a region lying inland from a coast or river. Eg. UP, Bihar, Jharkhand are hinterlands of Kolkata port.

iv) Name important items which India imports from different countries.

Answer) The major of items of India’s import as per 2009-2011 are food and allied products, fuel, fertilisers, paper board manufacturing and news print, capital goods, chemicals, pearls, precious and semi precious stones, gold and silver.

v) Name the ports of India located on the east coast.

Answer) Major ports located on the east coast are: Kolkata, Haldia, Paradip, Vishakhapatnam, Ennore, Chennai, Tuticorin.

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words

i) Describe the composition of export and import trade of India.

Answer) Composition of Export trade of India:

  • The percentage share of the agriculture and allied products have declined. There is a decline in the exports of traditional items such as coffee, spices, tea, pulses, etc.
  • The share of petroleum and crude products have increased due to rise in petroleum prices and increase in India’s refining capacity.
  • The share of ore minerals and manufactured goods have largely remained constant over the years from 1997- 98 to 2003-04.
  • Manufacturing goods are the largest exporting commodities in the year 2003-04 (75.96%).
  • The percentage share of other commodities has increased due to an increase in fruits, marine products and sugar.

Composition of Import trade of India:

  • During 1950-60’s, the major items of imports were food grains because India faced a dire need for food grain.
  • After 1970’s import of food grains stopped due to Green Revolution.
  • Food grains were replaced by fertilisers and petroleum.
  • Machine and equipment, special steel, edible oil and chemicals were largely import.
  • Petroleum is the largest imported commodity because it is used as a fuel as well as raw material. It indicates the tempo of rising in industrialisation and better standard if living.

ii) Write a note on the changing nature of the international trade of India.

Answer) India aims to double its share in the international trade within the next five years. It has already started adopting suitable measures such as import liberalisation, reduction in import duties, de-licensing and change from process to product patents. India has trade relations with most of the countries and major trading blocks of the world.

  • Largest imports and exports are from Asia and oceanic countries.
  • Asia and Oceania accounted for 47.41 per cent of India’s export followed by West Europe (23.80 per cent) and America (20.42). Similarly, India’s imports were highest from Asia and Oceania (35.40 per cent) followed by West Europe (22.60 per cent) and America (8.36 per cent) in 2004-05.
  • Exchange of information and knowledge has surpassed exchange of goods and commodities. Through its advanced software knowledge and excellence in the field of information technology, India has emerged as a viable contender at the international level and is earning huge amounts of foreign exchange through the same.
  • Tourism too has added to India’s upgraded position in international trade. In 2004, there was a 23.5% increase in foreign tourist arrivals as against the number in 2003.

That’s it. These were the solutions of NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 11 – International Trade. Our team hopes that you have found these solutions helpful for you. If you have any doubt related to this chapter then feel free to comment your doubts below. Our team will try their best to help you with your doubts.

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