NCERT Solutions for Class 12 History Chapter 15: Framing the Constitution

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Chapter15. Framing the Constitution The Beginning of a New Era
TextbookThemes in Indian History-III
CategoryNCERT Solutions for Class 12

It is important to use NCERT Solutions for Class 12 History as they can give students a clear understanding of the syllabus. Class 12 History has fifteen chapters, and our NCERT Solutions are a detailed guide that covers each of them. It provides step-by-step solutions to all the questions in the textbook. On this page, we have provided you with complete Solution of Chapter 15 – Framing the Constitution.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 History Chapter 15

Framing the Constitution Solutions

Q1) What were the ideals expressed in the Objectives Resolution?

Answer) Jawahar Lai Nehru presented the Objectives Resolution in the Constituent Assembly on 13 December, 1946. It gave a brief account of the ideals and objectives of the Constitution. These are following:

  • India was declared an independent sovereign republic.
  • Justice, equality and fraternity were assured to all the citizens of India.
  • Adequate safeguards were provided to minorities. It also referred to the well-being of the backward and depressed classes.
  • It was made an objective that India would combine the liberal ideas of democracy with the socialist idea of economic justice.
  • India would adopt that form of government which would be acceptable to its people. No imposition from the British would be acceptable by the people of India.
  • India would work for peace and human welfare.

Q2) How was the term minority defined by different groups?

Answer) N.G. Ranga, a socialist who had been a leader of the peasant movement, urged that the term minorities be interpreted in economic terms. The real minorities were the poor and the downtrodden. Some considered that the real minorities were the masses of our country who were so depressed and oppressed that they were ot even able to take advantage of the ordinary civil rights. Singh spoke eloquently on the need to protect the tribes, and ensure conditions that could help them come up to the level of the general population.

Q3) What were the arguments in favour of greater power to the provinces?

Answer) K.Santharam, a member from the Madras defended the rights of the states in the Constituent Assembly. He emphasised the need to strengthen the states. He was not in favour of vesting more powers with the Centre. He was of the opinion the Centre would not be able to perform its duties efficiently in case it is over-burdened. The Centre will become automatically strong if all states are made stronger. He advocated that the Centre should be given less powers and states should be given more powers. Proposed allocation of powers between the Centre and States was also a matter of concern for K. Santharam. He felt that such a distribution of power would cripple the states.

Q4) Why did Mahatma Gandhi think Hindustani should be the national language?

Answer) In view of Mahatma Gandhi Hindustani was a language that the common people could easily understand. Hindustani was a blend of Hindi and Urdu. It was also popular among a large section of the people. Moreover, it was a composite language enriched by the interaction of diverse cultures. Words and terms from many different languages got incorporated into this language over the years. It made this language easily understandable by people from various regions.

As per Mahatma Gandhi Hindustani would be the ideal language of communication between the communities. It would help to unify Hindus and Muslims and the people from north and south. Language came to be associated with the politics of religious identities from the end of the 19th century. But Mahatma Gandhi retained his faith in the composite character of Hindustani.

Q5) What historical forces shaped the vision of the Constitution?

Answer) Historical forces that shaped the vision of the Constitution were as given below:

  • Historic efforts in the past: Nehru in his famous speech of 13 December 1946 referred to the American and French Revolutions. He thus linked the making of the Indian Constitution with the revolutionary moments in the past. But at the same time he emphasised not to copy the west but to learn from their experiments, achievements and failures.
  • The will of the people: Nehru stated that the source of the Constituent Assembly was its strength i.e., the will of the people. So, members always kept in mind that passions that lay in the hearts of the masses of the Indian people and tried to fulfil them. Thus, Constituent Assembly was expected to represent the people.
  • India, a large country with diversities: India is a large country with different religions, castes, communities, languages and groups. It was necessary to keep all united. So, the Constitution was prepared keeping in mind these diversities.
  • Protection of minorities: There were minorities and depressed classes. It was necessary to protect their interests. Gandhiji had already started movement for upliftment of the Harijan. Thus, there were debates in the Assembly and provisions were incorporated for their protection and upliftment.
  • Period of violence: There were riots and violence and communal frenzy. Under these circumstances it was necessary to have a strong Centre. There were arguments in favour of and against it. But ultimately more powers were given to the Centre.
  • Problem of princely states: There were more than five hundred princely states. To accommodate them, it was absolutely necessary to have a federal system of government.

Q6) Discuss the different arguments made in favour of protection of the oppressed groups.

Answer) It was felt that oppressed classes like tribals and untouchables required special attention and safeguards to enable them to raise their status and come to the level of the general population.

Tribals were regarded backward. They were not accepted well in society. They were almost rejected. For their upliftment they were required to be assimilated in the society. They were also required to be brought into the mainstream of the society. So special protection and care were offered to them.

In society untouchables were treated as labourers. Society used their services but did not give them respectable position. They were treated as outcast and kept isolated. Their sufferings were due to their systematic marginalization.

Lands of the tribals have been confiscated and had been deprived of their forests and pastures. Tribals and untouchables had no access to education. They did not take part in administration. So some legislations were required to improve their conditions.

Q7) What connection did some of the members of the Constituent Assembly make between the political situation of the time and the need for a strong Centre?

Answer) The Constitution of India was framed between December 1946 and December 1949. It was a trouble-some time. There were riots and violence. There was the rising of the ratings of the Royal India Navy in Bombay and other cities in the spring of 1946. The violence culminated in the massacres that accompanied the transfer of populations when the Partition of India was announced. Some members of the Constituent Assembly made connection between the above political situation of the time and the need for a strong Centre as mentioned below:

  • Referring to riots and violence in the country, many members had repeatedly stated that the powers of the Centre had to be greatly strengthened to enable it to stop the communal frenzy.
  • Gopalaswami Ayyangar declared that “the Centre should be made as strong as possible”.
  • Balakrishna Sharma from the United Provinces reasoned at length that only a strong Centre could plan for the well-being of the country, mobilise the available economic resources and establish a proper administration.

Q8) How did the Constituent Assembly seek to resolve the language controversy?

Answer) India is very big country. It has many different regions. Different varieties of people live here and speak different languages. So for a new nation like India it was necessary to give proper attention to the intricacies of different languages.

  • Hindustani: Hindustani was a choice for the Congress and Mahatma Gandhi. Congress had already decided to adopt Hindustani as the national language of the country. Mahatma Gandhi was also in favour of adopting Hindustani as the national language and supported strongly for this view. He argued that everyone should speak in a language which is understood by most of the common people. Hindustani was not a new language. It was a blend of Hindi and Urdu. It was enriched by the interaction of diverse cultures and spoken by most of the people of the country.
  • Hindi: R.V. Dhulekar pleaded in favour of Hindi for adopting it as the national language. He came from the United Province and a Congressman. He wanted that Hindi should be used as language of constitution-making. He even said that those who did not know Hindustani were not worthy to be the members of the Constituent Assembly.
  • Report of the Language Committee: The language Committee of the Constituent Assembly suggested a compromise formula in its report. It suggested that Hindi in Devnagri script should be the official language of the country and tried to resolve the issue. It also suggested that transition from English to Hindi should be gradual. It was also suggested that during first fifteen years since adoption of the Constitution, English would continue to serve as for official purposes. So it was clear that the Language Committee referred Hindi as the official language not the national language.
  • Threat to South: The members of the Constituent Assembly who belonged to the Southern India were apprehensive of the view. They felt that Hindi would be a threat to their provincial languages. Shankar Rao from Bombay. T.A. Ramalingam Chettiar and Mrs. G. Durgabai of Madras suggested that issue of language required utmost care and needed to be handled efficiently and dextrally. Hindi should not be thrust upon the people of South India.

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