NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 9: Strategies For Enhancement In Food Production

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Chapter9. Strategies For Enhancement In Food Production
CategoryNCERT Solutions for Class 12

Our NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology is a great resource for students preparing for boards or competitive exams, such as the NEET. These Biology Class 12 Solutions are made by expert faculties, keeping the latest curriculum in mind. Besides helping students with understanding the concepts of Biology, these solutions are also helpful in writing accurate answers that are vital to score full marks in examinations. On this page, we have given the Class 12 Biology Chapter 9: Strategies For Enhancement In Food Production Solutions.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 9

Strategies For Enhancement In Food Production Solutions

Q1) Explain in brief the role of animal husbandry in human welfare.

Answer) Animal husbandry deals with the scientific management of livestock. It includes various aspects such as feeding, breeding, and control diseases to raise the population of animal livestock. Animal husbandry usually includes animals such as cattle, pig, sheep, poultry, and fish which are useful for humans in various ways. These animals are managed for the production of commercially important products such as milk, meat, wool, egg, honey, silk, etc. The increase in human population has increased the demand of these products. Hence, it is necessary to improve the management of livestock scientifically.

Q2) If your family owned a dairy farm, what measures would you undertake to improve the quality and quantity of milk production?

Answer) The quality and quantity of milk are primarily dependent upon the type of breed. Aside from this, the following are a few measures that an individual or a dairy farmer would take to improve the quality and quantity of milk production:

  • Dairy cows or other milk-producing animals have to be kept in a well-ventilated housing.
  • An adequate supply of clean water must be provided.
  • Emphasis should be provided on the quality and quantity of the feed.
  • Ensure stringent hygiene and cleanliness when handling cattle or other dairy animals.
  • Regular visits to the vet also reduce the chance of contracting illnesses.
  • Ensure the animals are regularly vaccinated.

Q3) What is meant by the term ‘breed’? What are the objectives of animal breeding?

Answer) A breed is a special variety of animals within a species. It is similar in most characters such as general appearance, size, configuration, and features with other members of the same species. Jersey and Brown Swiss are examples of foreign breeds of cattle. These two varieties of cattle have the ability to produce abundant quantities of milk. This milk is very nutritious with high protein content.

Objectives of animal breeding:

  1. To increase the yield of animals.
  2. To improve the desirable qualities of the animal produce.
  3. To produce disease-resistant varieties of animals.

Q4) Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you which one of the methods is best? Why?

Answer) Animal breeding is the method of mating closely related individuals. There are several methods employed in animals breeding, which can be classified into the following categories:

  1. Natural methods of breeding include inbreeding and out-breeding. Breeding between animals of the same breed is known as inbreeding, while breeding between animals of different breeds is known as out-breeding. Out-breeding of animals is of three types:
    • Out-crossing: In this type of out-breeding, the mating of animals occurs within the same breed. Thus, they have no common ancestors up to the last 4-5 generations.
    • Cross-breeding: In this type of out-breeding, the mating occurs between different breeds of the same species, thereby producing a hybrid.
    • Interspecific hybridization: In this type of out-breeding, the mating occurs between different species.
  2. Artificial methods of breeding include modern techniques of breeding. It involves controlled breeding experiments, which are of two types:
    • Artificial insemination: It is a process of introducing the semen (collected from the male) into the oviduct or the uterus of the female body by the breeder. This method of breeding helps the breeder overcome certain problems faced in abnormal mating.
    • Multiple ovulation embryo technology (MOET): It is a technique for cattle improvement in which super-ovulation is induced by a hormone injection. Then, fertilization is achieved by artificial insemination and early embryos are collected. Each of these embryos are then transplanted into the surrogate mother for further development of the embryo. The best method to carry out animal breeding is the artificial method of breeding, which includes artificial insemination and MOET technology. These technologies are scientific in nature. They help overcome problems of normal mating and have a high success rate of crossing between mature males and females. Also, it ensures the production of hybrids with the desired qualities. This method is highly economical as a small amount of semen from the male can be used to inseminate several cattle.

Q5) What is apiculture? How is it important in our lives?

Answer) Apiculture or beekeeping is defined as the processes and steps necessary to ensure the upkeep and maintenance of honey-bee hives for the production of honey. Honey is essential for many reasons:

  • It is highly nutritious and is used as an ingredient in many dishes.
  • It can replace sugar as a healthier alternative.
  • Besides culinary applications, honey has also been used to heal wounds due to its antibacterial properties.
  • It is also considered to alleviate cold and cough symptoms.
  • From a commercial perspective, it is considered as an income-generating activity and is not very labour-intensive.

Q6) Discuss the role of fishery in enhancement of food production.

Answer) Fishery is an industry which deals with catching, processing, and marketing of fishes and other aquatic animals that have a high economic value. Some commercially important aquatic animals are prawns crabs, oysters, lobsters, and octopus. Fisheries play an important role in the Indian economy. This is because a large part of the Indian population is dependent on fishes as a source of food, which is both cheap and high in animal protein. A Fishery is an employment generating industry especially for people staying in the coastal areas. Both fresh water fishes (such as Catla, Rohu, etc) and marine fishes (such as tuna, mackerel pomfret, etc.) are of high economic value.

Q7) Briefly describe various steps involved in plant breeding.

Answer) Plant breeding is defined as the process of changing select traits in order to bring about desired characteristics. It is primarily used for improving the nutritional value of plants. Following are the steps observed in plant breeding:

  • Accumulation of genetic variability
  • Germplasm evaluation & parent selection
  • Cross hybridisation of selected parents
  • Choosing superior hybrids
  • Testing viability of new cultivars

Q8) Explain what is meant by biofortification.

Answer) Biofortification is a process of breeding crops with higher levels of vitamins, minerals, proteins, and fat content. This method is employed to improve public health. Breeding of crops with improved nutritional quality is undertaken to improve the content of proteins, oil, vitamins, minerals, and micro-nutrients in crops. It is also undertaken to upgrade the quality of oil and proteins. An example of this is a wheat variety known as Atlas 66, which has high protein content in comparison to the existing wheat. In addition, there are several other improved varieties of crop plants such as rice, carrots, spinach etc. which have more nutritious value and more nutrients than the existing varieties.

Q9) Which part of the plant is best suited for making virus-free plants and why?

Answer) Apical and axillary meristems of plants is used for making virus-free plants. In a diseased plant, only this region is not infected by the virus as compared to the rest of the plant region. Hence, the scientists remove axillary and apical meristems of the diseased plant and grow it in vitroto obtain a disease-free and healthy plant.

Virus-free plants of banana, sugarcane, and potato have been obtained using this method by scientists.

Q10) What is the major advantage of producing plants by micropropagation?

Answer) Micropropagation is a method of producing new plants in a short duration using plant tissue culture. Some major advantages of micropropagation are as follows:

  • Micropropagation helps in the propagation of a large number of plants in a short span of time.
  • The plants produced are identical to the mother plant.
  • It leads to the production of healthier plantlets, which exhibit better disease-resisting powers.

Q11) Find out what the various components of the medium used for propagation of explants in vitro are?

Answer) The major components of medium used for propagation of explants in vitroare carbon sources such as sucrose, inorganic salts, vitamins, amino acids, water, agar-agar, and certain growth hormones such as auxins and gibberellins.

Q12) Name any five hybrid varieties of crop plants which have been developed in India.

Answer) The five hybrid varieties of crop plants which have been developed in India are:

Crop plantHybrid variety
WheatSonalika and kalian sona
CowpeaPusa komal
RiceJaya and Ratna
CauliflowerPusa shubra
MustardPusa swarnim

That’s it. These were the solutions of NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 – Strategies For Enhancement In Food Production. Our team hopes that you have found these solutions helpful for you. If you have any doubt related to this chapter then feel free to comment your doubts below. Our team will try their best to help you with your doubts.

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